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Wall Ties & Restraint Fixings

EC6, EN845, PD6697 and BS5268

The selection and spacing of wall ties depend on many factors. These include type of masonry to be tied, cavity width, type and height of building, location, and design life. There are several documents which need to be consulted and are summarised here.

Eurocode 6 – Design of Masonry Structures (BS EN 1996-1-1: 2005)

In 2010, Eurocode 6 became the main code for the design of reinforced and unreinforced masonry. Eurocode 6 refers to EN 845-1 for wall ties and sets the density of ties per square metre based on the declared value of the tie, the material factor and the design wind load. The material factor of 3.0 for detailed calculations is specified in the UK National Annex.

BS EN 845-1: 2013 Specification for Ancillary Components for Masonry - Part 1: Ties, Tension Straps, Hangers and Brackets

This European Standard specifies the requirements for wall ties used for interconnecting masonry and for connecting masonry to beams, columns or other parts of the building. Materials, tolerances, tie variations and the requirements for declared values, are all covered in this standard. For tie Types and qualifying criteria refer to PD 6697.

CE Mark

CE Marking

Construction products which fall within the scope of a harmonised European Standard must carry CE marking before they can legally be sold in the European Economic Area. For wall ties, the harmonised standard is BS EN 845-1 detailed above. Ancon complies with all requirements of this legislation and our website/literature identifies the products affected with a CE logo. For more information or to download a Declaration of Performance, click here.

PD 6697: 2010 Recommendations for the design of masonry structures to BS EN 1996-1-1 and BS EN 1996-2

Published Document 6697 contains noncontradictory, complementary information from the withdrawn British Standard BS 5628, which was not included in the BS EN 1996 series.

It includes recommendations on tie lengths, embedment, density, material and positioning. Masonry-to-masonry ties are classified as Types 1 to 4; the relevant classification is determined by strength, function and use. Minimum declared values for tension and compression are listed for each tie Type.

BS 5628, Code of Practice for the Use of Masonry

BS 5628 was withdrawn when the Eurocode became the accepted National code in March 2010. The majority of information in this British Standard has been reproduced in PD 6697: 2010.

BS 5268-6.1: 1996 (Incorporating Amendments No. 1 and 2): Structural use of timber - Dwellings not exceeding seven storeys

BS 5268 provides recommendations for wall ties for timber framed buildings. Information is provided for the type of structure, location, embedment, density and positioning. These ties are classified as Types 5 to 7; minimum declared values in tension and compression are listed for Types 5 and 6.

Although BS 5268 was officially withdrawn on the full implementation of Eurocodes in March 2010, timber frame wall ties should continue to be selected from Types 5 to 7 as given in Annex B of BS 5268 Part 6.1: 1996, until further guidance is made available.

Masonry-to-Masonry Wall Tie Types to PD 6697: 2010*

Tie TypeApplicationDensityMax. Building HeightGeographical Location
Type 1
e.g. ST1
Heavy Duty. All building heights and types. Not very flexible and not recommended for applications where there is expected to be excessive differential movement between leaves 2.5 ties/m2
3-4 ties/m at unbonded edges
Any height Suitable for most sites. However, for relatively tall or unusually shaped buildings in vulnerable areas, the tie provision should be calculated
Type 2
e.g. RT2
General Purpose. Domestic and small commercial developments As Type 1 15m Flat sites where the basic wind speed is up to 31m/s at an altitude not more than 150m above sea level

Type 2 ties are suitable for use outside the parameters stated e.g. sites over 150m above sea level, buildings exceeding 15 metres etc, if shown to be adequate by calculation. Contact Ancon for more information.

Tie TypeApplicationDensityMax. Building HeightGeographical Location
Type 3 Basic. Some domestic and small commercial developments As Type 1 15m Flat sites where the basic wind speed is up to 27m/s and altitude is not more than 150m above sea level
Type 4
e.g. HRT4
Light Duty. Box-form domestic dwellings with leaves of similar thickness As Type 1 10m Flat sites within towns and cities where the basic wind speed does not exceed 27m/s and altitude is not more than 150m above sea level

* Refer to PD 6697: 2010 and BS EN 1991-1-4: 2005 for complete information.

Masonry-to-Timber Tie Types to BS 5268-6.1: 1996*

Tie TypeApplicationDensityMax. Building HeightGeographical Location
Type 5 Timber Frame. Domestic, industrial and commercial developments of up to three storeys 4.4 ties/m²
3-4 ties/m
at
unbonded
edges
15m Flat sites within towns and cities where the basic wind speed does not exceed 25m/s and altitude is not more than 150m above sea level
Type 6
e.g. STF50
As Type 5 but suitable for developments of up to four storeys As Type 5 15m Flat sites within towns and cities where the basic wind speed does not exceed 25m/s and altitude is not more than 150m above sea level
Type 7
e.g. TFMT
As Type 5 but suitable for developments of between five and seven storeys, being designed to accommodate the increased vertical differential movement Calculated for actual performance required for each site location 18m Calculated for actual performance required for each site location

* Refer to BS 5268-6.1: 1996 and BS 6399-2: 1997 for complete information.

Approved Document E: Resistance to the Passage of Sound

This document specifies the acoustic performance requirements of ties suitable for use in separating walls (Type A ) and external walls (Type B) of new build dwellings. Click here for further information.

Lime Mortars

Ancon stainless steel wall ties and Teplo-BF wall ties are suitable for use with lime mortars (minimum strength HLM2); tie selection should be based on the general guidance here. Preference should be given to the most flexible wall tie that meets the structural load i.e. wire ties over strip/bar ties.

Wind Code Variations

Masonry wall ties should be selected from the Types in PD 6697 and timber frame wall ties should be selected from the Types in BS 5268. These two documents use different Wind Codes.

The maximum wind speeds referred to in PD 6697 are based on ten minute return periods according to the current Wind Code BS EN 1991-1-4: 2005.

The geographical locations in BS 5268-6.1 are based on hourly return period wind speeds according to BS 6399-2: 1997.

Wind speed information taken from BS EN 1991-1-4: 2005 for use with PD 6697: 2010.
Wind speed information taken from BS EN 1991-1-4: 2005 for use with PD 6697: 2010.
Wind speed information taken from BS 6399-2: 1997 Code of Practice for Wind Loads for use with BS 5268-6.1: 1996.
Wind speed information taken from BS 6399-2: 1997 Code of Practice for Wind Loads for use with BS 5268-6.1: 1996.

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